Thursday, December 5, 2019
International Relation free essay sample
Introduction Constructivism or social constructivism can be clearly defines as a social theory or an approach that has been long used in the field of international relation. Though, it is newly recognised and being practiced by certain people. In our international system, constructivist approach seems to play crucial roles in organizing relationship among states. Based on the definition of international system in one book, Ã¢â¬Å"International system is a set of relationship among the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s states, structured according to certain rules and pattern of interactionÃ¢â¬ . Thus, it is no doubt that constructivist is a part of international system. What are the main ideas brought by constructivist in international relation matter? The key answers are ideas, norms, identity and social interaction. These four terminologies is reflecting constructivism as a social theory and approach in IR. Fundamentally, constructivist approach focused on the element of social rather than materialistic element as such in Realism. We will write a custom essay sample on International Relation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Constructivist argues on realism point of view that material is the key element in understanding international relation. According to Yu Ã¢â¬âTai Tsai (2009), constructivism never reject material things but also to complement it with the roles of ideas. This idea will complement the material world through shaping humanÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. Therefore, the evolution of international system exist when actors of the international society and politic promotes cooperative relation independently. Constructivist mentioned that, social reality is subjective whereby actorÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour creates collective meaning in an international system. Indirectly, the behaviour of actors leads to the creation of norms and identity that shape foreign policy. Unlike realism and liberalism, constructivism isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just a social theory but more likely an approach in understanding international relation. This is because; social constructivism to some scholar is a lesson about norms, identity and interaction as a real situation that can provide us with useful knowledge for us to not only understand international relation but to also understand the formation of foreign policy in the eyes of constructivist. Let us consider the following examples that can help us in understanding the main ideas brought by constructivist approach. Gun Story Imagine that there is a gun in your hand. Basically, the image of the gun is negative. When society sees you holding a gun, their first impression is that you are going to kill someone since the gun is the key to kill someone. However, constructivist views this differently; gun is nothing much than just a gun but the most important is who possesses the gun. This is because, the idea of killing is coming from the person who is having the gun and not the gun for sure. If he or she decided not to shoot, nothing will happen and no one will be killed. Related this example with constructivist concept of idea, in an international relation, idea is very important to shape the behaviour of actors. This is another example of constructivist idea of identity in international relation. In 1992, United State of America sent troops to Somalia. Somalia is a country with minimal strategic and economic importance to US. During that period, Somalia jump into civil war involving the political crisis and African drought that affected its population. Mass starvation occurred when its threaten one fourth of the population. US see this in the perspective of humanity and the idea of helping Somalia emerged after huge coverage by the CNN. Media such as CNN took active interest to attract world attention by picturing Somalian hunger. They illustrated and displayed the image of flies and children with diseases such as malnutrition and etc. Unconsciously, media has created such ideas for US to pursue their national interest in providing such aids to Somalia. Thus, according to constructivist, media plays strong influence in spreading ideas that can helps state in strengthening their international relations with others. Based on the example above, constructivist believes that social and material is complementing each other in international system. This is because, according to Alexander Wendt(1994), constructivist approach also stressed on international structure that consists of social relationship and material capabilities that will absolutely influence the identity and interest of a nation. Thus, constructivism is an interesting subject to be discussed rather than realism or liberalism. Conclusion In our international system, it is no doubt that the social interaction exist long time before. Thus, constructivist approach point out that identity and national interest was constructed through social interaction. In Malaysia for example, foreign policy toward Vietnam in Rohignya Ethnic issue was based on shared identity. Constructivist view this as Majority of Malaysian are Muslim and the identity of Islam shared by the minority ethnic (Rohignya) in Vietnam as Muslim as well. Thus Malaysia feel that it is their responsibi lity to helps their Muslim society and to implement their foreign policy as well. As a result, Malaysia took this opportunity by voicing out their opinion that Vietnam government should acknowledge this minority ethnic group as part of their population. As stated in a book on international relation study, State identities are complex and it change through time through the process of socialization (Joshua S. G. Jon C. P. , 2012: p. 97). Therefore, the process of socialization was briefly discussed by the constructivist in their school of thought. Again, According to Kennetz Waltz, the international systems are ordered based on the principle of its membersÃ¢â¬â¢ sovereign equality and it is therefore decentralized and anarchic.